2010年7月14日星期三

英文「未來表達方式」的使用時機


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英文「未來表達方式」的使用時機 (1)

撰文者: Wayne 發表日期: May 20, 2010 - 7:03 am


英文的時態觀念與中文略有不同,而且使用方式多變。通常初級英語課程會簡化時態觀念,以方便初學者在短期內上手,這是無可厚非的做法。可惜,過於簡化的時態觀念會讓學生掉入錯誤的陷阱而不自覺。版主舉一個例子來說明這種狀況:


課堂上美籍英文老師指導學生,描述過去的事情用『過去式 (I went to ….)』,描述現在的事情用『現在式 (Ice melts at…) / 現在進行式 (He is watching…)』,描述現在的事情則用『未來式 (I will …)』。這種簡化的方式讓教學進展迅速,學生大都能夠接受。然而,要是遇到下面的狀況,心思細膩的學生就會產生疑問:


老師:'Hurry up! The school bus is leaving in 15 minutes. No time to waste.' (快點!校車15分鐘後就要開了。別再拖了。)


在這種情況之下,老美通常不會說 'The school bus will leave in 15 minutes.' 這無關文法對錯,而是使用習慣的問題。華人如果要精通英文,就必須確實瞭解英文的時態觀念。英文有許多表達未來的方式,因此版主不會用『未來式』概括一切,而會用『未來表達方式』。


閱讀本篇英文時態解說之前,版主建議先閱讀『英文時態概論』與『英文文法基本概念:動詞的基本型態』,先掌握基本概念,然後再研究細節。



◎ 現在簡單式


如果利用『簡單式』說明未來,則表示說話者持超然的態度來說明 (psychologically uninvolved) ,與純未來式有所不同。這種情況多半是由行程表、行事曆、火車時刻表或工作計畫「排定好」的未來。


The train leaves tonight at 8 PM.

(火車今晚八點開。)


When do we board the plane?

(我們何時要登機?)


Are you available tomorrow afternoon?

(你明天下午有空嗎?)


When does the lease expire?

(租約何時到期?)


(說明) 其實這種用法的使用存乎一心,因人而異,版主最近還看到下面的例子:


KG today announced that it will host an Investor and Analyst Meeting on Friday, May 28, 2010 in Taipei.


On-site registration begins at 10:30 A.M. Eastern Time and management presentations will begin at 14:30 P.M. A live webcast of the meeting can be accessed by logging on to the Company's website at www.KG.com.tw. A replay will also be available on the Company's website after the meeting.


前半部分用現在式,後半部份則用未來式,可見英語時態的彈性頗大。這只能體會之後,運用於生活中要使用英文的場合。



◎ 現在進行式

使用現在進行式來表達近期的未來事件。


** 表達即將或者近期的要做的事件

Is he visiting his parents next weekend?

(他下禮拜要去探望爸媽嗎?)


Isn't he coming with us tonight?

(他今晚不是要跟我們去?)


"Andrea, Tom Brokaw is coming to you! Are you ready?"

(AndreaTom Brokaw 要跟你連線!準備好了嗎?)

From: The Age of Turbulence by Alan Greenspan



** 表示個人的安排或約定 (personal arrangements or fixed plans)

Q: "When are you leaving?" (你何時要離開?)

A: "I'm leaving tonight." (我今晚離開。)


"What are you doing tonight?" = "What's your plan for tonight?"

(你今晚想做什麼?)

"I'm staying at the hotel. I'm very tired and still have jet lag after the long flight."

(我想待在旅館。長途飛行之後,我非常疲憊,況且我還有時差問題。)


I am meeting some friends after work.

(我下班後要跟朋友見面。)


◎ 比較下面兩種情況:

(Scenario 1)

"Come on in. Let me buy you a drink. What would you like?"

"Thanks. But I don't drink." (我不喝酒)

"You don't drink? Why?"


(Scenario 2)

"Come on in. Let me buy you a drink. What would you like?"

"Thanks. I'm not drinking." (我不想喝酒/我不喝酒)

"You're not drinking? Oh, I see! You're the designated driver."


** 現在進行式搭配移動動詞,說明動作剛開始

We use the present progressive with verbs of movement to talk about actions which are just starting


Are you coming to the pub?

(你正()前來酒吧嗎?)


I'm just popping out to the post office. Back in a minute.

(我正前往郵局,一會兒就會回去。)


Get your coat on! I'm taking you down to the doctor!

(穿上外套!我帶你去看醫生。)



be going to + (動詞原型)

此種句型表示:

(1) 根據實際證據來預測近期或者即將發生的事情

(2) 說話者的意願或說明他人計畫

(3) 立定志向(無論志向是否實際)


**根據實際的證據來預測近期或者即將發生的事情

Look at the sky. It's going to rain. (你看天空,就快要下雨了!)


Sandra's going to have another baby in June. (Sandra 又要在六月添一個寶寶。)


Oh, my God! We're going to crash! (天啊,我們要撞毀了!)


I'm going to wet my pants if I don't take a leak. (我再不上廁所的話,就要尿出來了。)


Michelle is going to begin medical school next year.

(Michelle 明年就要去讀醫學院。)



** 說話者的意願或說明他人的計畫

I'm going to visit Tom tonight. (我今晚將去拜訪湯姆。)


We're going to get a new car soon. (我們很快就會買一部新車。)


I'm going to keep asking her out until she says 'Yes'.

(我要不斷約她出去,直到她點頭答應。)


When are you going to get your hair cut?

(你什麼時候要去理髮?) - 詢問


Who are you going to invite to the party?

(你想邀請誰參加聚會?) - 詢問

She is going to spend her vacation in Miaoli.

(她要去苗栗度假。) - 肯定

She is not going to spend her vacation in Miaoli.

(她不會去苗栗度假。) - 否定


Since nearly everyone he talks to is converting their accounts into the new plan, here is what Karl is going to do. Unless he hears from you specifically otherwise, he is going to convert everyone over to the 80% plan.

(每個會員與Karl 通過電話之後,都要將帳戶轉換到新的計畫,因此他 (Karl)決定這樣做。除非你告訴他不想加入新計畫,否則他將會把每個會員轉換到 80% 的新計劃。)



I'm going to be an actor when I grow up. / I want to be an actor when I grow up.

(我長大之後要當演員。) - 立定志向


**立定志向(無論志向是否實際)

He often says he is going to study law and become a judge.

(他常說他將來要學法律,然後當法官。) - 立定志向


From now on, I'm going to go running every day.

(從現在起,我每天都要去跑步。) - 立定志向


One day in 1996, one of my children came home disillusioned with school. He was bored and tired of studying. "Why should I put time into studying subjects I will never use in real life?" he protested. Without thinking, I responded, "Because if you don't get good grades, you won't get into college." "Regardless of whether I go to college," he replied, "I'm going to be rich."

(一九九六年的一天,最小的孩子帶著破滅的幻想從學校歸來,他說他已經厭倦了,不想再去學習。「為什麼我要花時間去那些我真實生活中一輩子也用不到的東西呢?」他抗議道。我毫不思索地答道:「因為如果你學得不好就進不了大學。」「可我並不想去上大學呢,」他說,「我只想發財。」)

(說明) 這是《富爸爸,窮爸爸》台灣中譯本的翻譯,嚴格說並不精準。最後一句最好翻成:「不管有沒有讀大學,我都要賺大錢。」- 立定志向



translation

** 現在進行式與 be going to 在說明「未來」時的差異:

現在進行式 - 強調安排好的計畫 (fixed arrangement)

'be going to' - 強調意圖 (intention) & (以實際證據) 客觀預測


Are you doing anything this weekend? - 詢問計畫

Are you going to do anything this weekend? (這種句型比較不自然)


Are you going to do anything about that letter from the tax man? - 詢問意圖

Are you doing anything about that letter from the tax man? (這種句型比較不自然)


Who's cooking lunch? (午餐由誰來煮?) - asking what has been arranged

Who's going to cook lunch? (誰要煮午餐?) - asking about a decision


I'm getting a new job. (我已經找到新工作了。) - 已經錄用但是還沒正式上班

I'm going to get a new job. (我決定要去找新工作。)- 還沒找到工作


*(參考下面的論壇留言)*

I'm getting a new job but having a hard time finding a place to live (留言標題)

I just got a new teaching job. But I'm worried I'm going to have a hard time finding a place to live. (留言內容)

(說明) 作者已經找到工作,只是很難找到租屋處。


Things are going to get better soon. (事情很快就會好轉。)

(Things are getting better soon.) (非人所能控制,不用現在進行式)


He's going to have an accident one of these days. (他遲早會出車禍。) - 推測

(He's having an accident one of these days.) (非人所能控制,不用現在進行式)

//one of these days = soon


It's going to snow before long. (不久就會下雪。) - 判斷

(It's snowing before long.) (非人所能控制,不用現在進行式)


Our house is getting/ is going to get new windows this summer.

(我們家這個夏天要裝新窗戶。)


Their new house is going to look over the river. (他們新家將可眺望這條河流。)

(Their new house is looking over the river.) - 永久性狀態不能用現在進行式

translation

現在式與 'be going to' 皆可表示:

(1) 命令

(2) 拒絕


You're finishing/going to finish that soup even if you have to sit here all afternoon!

(不管你是否要耗整個下午,你都得把湯喝完。)


She's taking /going to take that medicine whether she likes it or not.

(不管你喜不喜歡,你都得吃藥。)


I'm sorry, you're not taking my car.

(抱歉,你不能拿我的車。) - 斷然否決時常用現在進行式


I'm not bloody well washing your socks!

(我才不要洗你的襪子!)


translation

going to = (口語) gonna


Nobody's gonna talk to me like that.

(沒人可以這樣跟我說話。)


"Do you see the girl in the picture?"

(你有看到照片中的女孩嗎?)

"Yeah." (有啊。)

"This is the girl I'm gonna marry." (她是我的未婚妻。)



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英文「未來表達方式」的使用時機 (2)

撰文者: Wayne 發表日期: June 27, 2010 - 2:08 am


英文的時態觀念與中文略有不同,而且使用方式多變。通常初級英語課程會簡化時態觀念,以方便初學者在短期內上手,這是無可厚非的做法。可惜,過於簡化的時態觀念會讓學生掉入錯誤的陷阱而不自覺。版主舉一個例子來說明這種狀況:


課堂上美籍英文老師指導學生,描述過去的事情用『過去式 (I went to ….)』,描述現在的事情用『現在式 (Ice melts at…) / 現在進行式 (He is watching…)』,描述現在的事情則用『未來式 (I will …)』。這種簡化的方式讓教學進展迅速,學生大都能夠接受。然而,要是遇到下面的狀況,心思細膩的學生就會產生疑問:


老師:「Hurry up! The school bus is leaving in 15 minutes. No time to waste.(快點!校車15分鐘後就要開了。別再拖了。)


在這種情況之下,老美通常不會說 'The school bus will leave in 15 minutes.' 這無關文法對錯,而是使用習慣的問題。華人如果要精通英文,就必須確實瞭解英文的時態觀念。英文有許多表達未來的方式,因此版主不會用未來式來概括一切,而會用『未來表達方式』。


閱讀本篇英文時態解說之前,版主建議先閱讀『英文時態概論』與『英文文法基本概念:動詞的基本型態』,先掌握基本概念,然後再研究細節。



be to 的句型


** 排定的事情

Asean Leaders are to meet in Singapore next Friday.

(東南亞國協領袖將在下週五於新加坡會面。)

(說明) 這句話會以下列方式改寫成新聞標題:

Asean Leaders to Meet in Singapore Next Friday


** 警告或命令

Poisonus Substance. Not to be taken orally.

(有毒物質,不可口服。)


You are to submit the proposal before 1 P.M.

(你必須在下午一點之前交出建議書。)


Don't ever cheat on your income tax. You are not to get away with it.

(不要逃漏所得稅,你是不可能躲得掉的。)




be about to / on the point of / on the verge of 的句型

這些句型表達「立即」的未來,比 'be going to' 還更接近目前。


I was about to leave when the telephone rang.

(電話鈴響時,我那時正要離開。)


Please go back to your seat and fasten your seat belt. The plane is about to take off.

(請回到座位並繫好安全帶。飛機將要起飛了。)


The couple bickering over there are on the point of fighting.

(那一對在吵嘴的夫妻就快要打起來了。)


Both parties are on the verge of settling their latest nomination disputes.

(兩黨都即將解決它們最近的提名紛爭。)




◎ ' be due to' 使用於時間表和行程


The contract is due to expire on November 14th.

(這項合約將於十一月十四日期滿。)


The EVA 543 is due to arrive in Taipei at 16:40.

(EVA 543號班機將於下午四點四十分抵達台北。)


The train is due in four minutes.

(火車預計於四分鐘後抵達。)

這句的意思等同於:The train is scheduled to arrive in four minutes.




◎未來簡單式


** 表示對未來的意見、預測或猜想

第一人稱用 will / shall (純未來 - 美語中非常少見)

第二、三人稱用 will


I shall be twenty next month.

(下個月我將滿二十歲。) - 純未來


This time next week I shall be sitting on a beach in Greece.

(我下禮拜的此刻會坐在希臘的海邊呢。) - 預測


Inflation will go up again next year.

(通貨膨脹明年將會更嚴重。) - 預測


No body will ever know what happened to her.

(以後沒有人會知道她先前發生過什麼事情。)


Who do you think will win on Saturday?

(你認為禮拜六誰會贏?)


You will never finish that book.

(那本書你絕對看不完。)


It will rain tomorrow.

(明天會下雨。) - 預測


Political observers in Taipei all say he will win the next year's presidential election.

(台北的政治觀察家都認為他將贏得明年的總統大選。) - 預測


One of these days he'll realize what a fool he's been.

(他不久就會明白自己是多麼的愚蠢。) // one of these days = soon 不久



translation

(比較1)

未來簡單式 與 現在進行式/ be going to 在說明「未來」時,傳達的意義很類似,只有細微的差異:

未來簡單式 - 單純說明未來

現在進行式 / be going to - 比較強調「意圖 (intention) 或確信程度 (certainty)


What will you do next year?

What are you doing next year?

What are you going to do next year? - 強調意圖


All the family will be here.

All the family are going to be here. - 比較確信


The movie "The Bucket List" will win several Academy Awards.

The movie "The Bucket List" is going to win several Academy Awards. - 比較確信


You won't believe this.

You're not going to believe this. - 比較確信


Next year will be a very interesting year.

Next year is going to be a very interesting year. - 比較確信



translation

(比較2)

will - 沒有客觀證據下預測未來

be going to - 有客觀證據下預測或說明未來


Look out - we're going to crash! - There is outside evidence.

(小心,我們要撞上了!) - 眼見要撞上了,有客觀證據


Don't lend him your car. He's a terrible driver - he'll crash it. - based on the speaker's knowledge

(別把你的車借他,他技術很爛,會把車撞壞。) - 憑個人的印象所下的結論,沒有客觀證據


I've just heard from the builder. That roof repair's going to cost $500. - outside evidence: the builder's letter

(我收到建商的信,修復屋頂要花 500 美元。) - 從信中得知,有客觀證據


I reckon it'll cost about $3,000 to put in new lights. - the speaker's opinion

(我猜想裝上新的燈大概要花 3000 美金。) - 全是個人猜想,缺乏客觀證據


Alice is going to have a baby. - outside evidence:she is pregnant now.

(艾莉絲將會有個小孩。) - 她已經懷孕,有客觀的證據佐證


The baby will certainly have blue eyes, because both parents have. - the speaker's knowledge about genetics

(孩子絕對會有一雙藍眼睛,因為父母都是藍眼睛。) - 全憑個人對基因的知識所下的結論,缺乏客觀證據

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